Ubuntu16.04环境下搭建FTP服务器的教程

发布时间: 2019-12-02 10:27:54 来源: 互联网 栏目: LINUX 点击:

这篇文章主要介绍了Ubuntu16.04搭建FTP服务器的教程,本文给大家介绍的非常详细,具有一定的参考借鉴价值,需要的朋友可以参考下

Ubuntu16.04搭建FTP服务器

安装ftp

安装ftp:

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install vsftpd

检查ftp是否安装:

vsftpd --version

更改配置文件

注意使用sudo命令获得root权限
打开配置文件:

sudo vim /etc/vsftpd.conf

做如下更改:

# Example config file /etc/vsftpd.conf
#
# The default compiled in settings are fairly paranoid. This sample file
# loosens things up a bit, to make the ftp daemon more usable.
# Please see vsftpd.conf.5 for all compiled in defaults.
#
# READ THIS: This example file is NOT an exhaustive list of vsftpd options.
# Please read the vsftpd.conf.5 manual page to get a full idea of vsftpd's
# capabilities.
#
#
# Run standalone? vsftpd can run either from an inetd or as a standalone
# daemon started from an initscript.
listen=NO
#
# This directive enables listening on IPv6 sockets. By default, listening
# on the IPv6 "any" address (::) will accept connections from both IPv6
# and IPv4 clients. It is not necessary to listen on *both* IPv4 and IPv6
# sockets. If you want that (perhaps because you want to listen on specific
# addresses) then you must run two copies of vsftpd with two configuration
# files.
listen_ipv6=YES
#
# Allow anonymous FTP? (Disabled by default).
anonymous_enable=NO
#
# Uncomment this to allow local users to log in.
local_enable=YES
#
# Uncomment this to enable any form of FTP write command.
write_enable=YES
#
# Default umask for local users is 077. You may wish to change this to 022,
# if your users expect that (022 is used by most other ftpd's)
local_umask=022
#
# Uncomment this to allow the anonymous FTP user to upload files. This only
# has an effect if the above global write enable is activated. Also, you will
# obviously need to create a directory writable by the FTP user.
#anon_upload_enable=YES
#
# Uncomment this if you want the anonymous FTP user to be able to create
# new directories.
#anon_mkdir_write_enable=YES
#
# Activate directory messages - messages given to remote users when they
# go into a certain directory.
dirmessage_enable=YES
#
# If enabled, vsftpd will display directory listings with the time
# in your local time zone. The default is to display GMT. The
# times returned by the MDTM FTP command are also affected by this
# option.
use_localtime=YES
#
# Activate logging of uploads/downloads.
xferlog_enable=YES
#
# Make sure PORT transfer connections originate from port 20 (ftp-data).
connect_from_port_20=YES
#
# If you want, you can arrange for uploaded anonymous files to be owned by
# a different user. Note! Using "root" for uploaded files is not
# recommended!
#chown_uploads=YES
#chown_username=whoever
#
# You may override where the log file goes if you like. The default is shown
# below.
xferlog_file=/var/log/vsftpd.log
#
# If you want, you can have your log file in standard ftpd xferlog format.
# Note that the default log file location is /var/log/xferlog in this case.
xferlog_std_format=YES
#
# You may change the default value for timing out an idle session.
#idle_session_timeout=600
#
# You may change the default value for timing out a data connection.
#data_connection_timeout=120
#
# It is recommended that you define on your system a unique user which the
# ftp server can use as a totally isolated and unprivileged user.
#nopriv_user=ftpsecure
#
# Enable this and the server will recognise asynchronous ABOR requests. Not
# recommended for security (the code is non-trivial). Not enabling it,
# however, may confuse older FTP clients.
#async_abor_enable=YES
#
# By default the server will pretend to allow ASCII mode but in fact ignore
# the request. Turn on the below options to have the server actually do ASCII
# mangling on files when in ASCII mode.
# Beware that on some FTP servers, ASCII support allows a denial of service
# attack (DoS) via the command "SIZE /big/file" in ASCII mode. vsftpd
# predicted this attack and has always been safe, reporting the size of the
# raw file.
# ASCII mangling is a horrible feature of the protocol.
#ascii_upload_enable=YES
#ascii_download_enable=YES
#
# You may fully customise the login banner string:
ftpd_banner=Welcome to blah FTP service.
#
# You may specify a file of disallowed anonymous e-mail addresses. Apparently
# useful for combatting certain DoS attacks.
#deny_email_enable=YES
# (default follows)
#banned_email_file=/etc/vsftpd.banned_emails
#
# You may restrict local users to their home directories. See the FAQ for
# the possible risks in this before using chroot_local_user or
# chroot_list_enable below.
#chroot_local_user=YES
#
# You may specify an explicit list of local users to chroot() to their home
# directory. If chroot_local_user is YES, then this list becomes a list of
# users to NOT chroot().
# (Warning! chroot'ing can be very dangerous. If using chroot, make sure that
# the user does not have write access to the top level directory within the
# chroot)
chroot_local_user=YES
chroot_list_enable=YES
# (default follows)
chroot_list_file=/etc/vsftpd.chroot_list
#
# You may activate the "-R" option to the builtin ls. This is disabled by
# default to avoid remote users being able to cause excessive I/O on large
# sites. However, some broken FTP clients such as "ncftp" and "mirror" assume
# the presence of the "-R" option, so there is a strong case for enabling it.
#ls_recurse_enable=YES
#
# Customization
#
# Some of vsftpd's settings don't fit the filesystem layout by
# default.
#
# This option should be the name of a directory which is empty. Also, the
# directory should not be writable by the ftp user. This directory is used
# as a secure chroot() jail at times vsftpd does not require filesystem
# access.
secure_chroot_dir=/var/run/vsftpd/empty
#
# This string is the name of the PAM service vsftpd will use.
pam_service_name=ftp
#
# This option specifies the location of the RSA certificate to use for SSL
# encrypted connections.
rsa_cert_file=/etc/ssl/certs/ssl-cert-snakeoil.pem
rsa_private_key_file=/etc/ssl/private/ssl-cert-snakeoil.key
ssl_enable=NO

#
# Uncomment this to indicate that vsftpd use a utf8 filesystem.
utf8_filesystem=YES

退出编辑模式后,使用:wq保存退出vim.

创建ftp用户

此处的操作需要使用root权限,若操作被拒绝,使用sudo:

sudo mkdir /home/ftpdir
sudo useradd ftpdir -d /home/ftpdir -m
sudo passwd ftpdir
sudo mkdir /home/ftpdir/ftp
sudo chmod 777 -R /home/ftpdir/ftp
usermod -s /sbin/nologin ftpdir

配置完成后,添加用户:

sudo vim /etc/vsftpd.chroot_list

将ftpdir添加在文件中。

ftpdir

到此为止,整个ftp的搭建过程就完成了,接下来就是关于如何去使用了。

启动或者重启ftp

启动或者重启ftp:

service vsftpd startservice vsftpd restart

查看ftp状态:

service vsftpd status

若要关闭ftp服务,可以使用如下命令:

service vsftpd stop

查看服务器ip

打开命令端

robot@robot:~$ ifconfig
enp4s0f2 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 74:d0:2b:ec:fa:f9 
   UP BROADCAST MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
   RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
   TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
   collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 
   RX bytes:0 (0.0 B) TX bytes:0 (0.0 B)

lo  Link encap:Local Loopback 
   inet addr:127.0.0.1 Mask:255.0.0.0
   inet6 addr: ::1/128 Scope:Host
   UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:65536 Metric:1
   RX packets:12840 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
   TX packets:12840 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
   collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 
   RX bytes:1174976 (1.1 MB) TX bytes:1174976 (1.1 MB)

wlp3s0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 24:fd:52:85:42:0c 
   inet addr:192.168.1.110 Bcast:192.168.1.255 Mask:255.255.255.0
   inet6 addr: fe80::c13c:b38e:69c7:cdf2/64 Scope:Link
   UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
   RX packets:99764 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
   TX packets:95225 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
   collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 
   RX bytes:98718687 (98.7 MB) TX bytes:14326894 (14.3 MB)

由于此处连接的是wifi,因此在wlp3s0这里找到对应的ip地址为192.168.1.110(如果连接网线则在第一段找ip,每台电脑的配置都不一样,可根据实际情况考虑)

登陆

使用filezilla或者打开文件管理器输入ftp://ipaddress

打开计算机,输入服务器的ip地址ftp://192.168.1.110
在这里插入图片描述

输入用户名和密码,此处使用的用户名为ftpdir,密码为123456

在这里插入图片描述

最后就可以看到服务器上的创建的文件夹了。

在这里插入图片描述

ubuntu上文件位置

在完成ftp服务器的搭建和测试工作后,文件存放在服务哪里呢,怎么找到这些文件?
在创建用户那一节,在/home目录这里创建了ftpdir文件夹,ftpdir文件夹里创建了一个可读可写的文件夹ftp,在之后的文件传输中,可以切换到ftp文件夹中寻找文件,此处操作需要使用sudo获取权限。

robot@robot:~$ cd /home/ftpdir/ftp
robot@robot:/home/ftpdir/ftp$ ls
魔方.zip

至此,整个过程就结束了,在搭建的过程中,参考了网上其他前辈的经验,这仅作为学习之路上的笔记,所提到的东西若有错误,欢迎各位指出!

总结

以上所述是小编给大家介绍的Ubuntu16.04环境下搭建FTP服务器的教程,希望对大家有所帮助,如果大家有任何疑问请给我留言,小编会及时回复大家的。在此也非常感谢大家对我们网站的支持!
如果你觉得本文对你有帮助,欢迎转载,烦请注明出处,谢谢!

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